Such breeds are known as dual-mission (animal meat and you will egg) types, even when variations in adult body proportions occur (Desk 1)

The purpose of that it tasks are to study the effect away from breed and years into eggs development plus the egg exterior and inner quality when you look at the five Italian twin-purpose breeds , at the start and lots of weeks later than first weeks installing hobby one to happened, correspondingly, after summer/start of autumn plus in wintertime, less than adjustable ecological criteria.

dos.step 1. Pets and you can Rearing Standards

Four Italian poultry types, Pepoi (PP), Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER), Robusta Maculata (RM) and Robusta Lionata (RL), was felt on analysis. Your body weight from mature female is step 1.twenty five kilogram inside PP, dos.31 kilogram for the Emergency room and you can step 3.05 kilogram when you look at the RM and you can RL. Their origin is the Veneto region (Italy): PP are a classic regional reproduce; their origin are old back once again to the brand new XIX century, but zero appropriate studies into the the hereditary resource exists. Others types are designed into the Veneto in the 1950s: the fresh Er reproduce comes from Sussex (tinted eggshell reproduce) and Rhode Area (brown eggshell breed) types, whereas into RM and you may RL types, Brown Orpington and Light The usa, one or two brown eggshell types were used . Along with the adult weight, these types differ within plumage the color: it is wonderful during the PP, Emergency room reveals erminate plumage, RM plumage was mainly light that have black extremities a number of nations of the body, black feathers out of primaries and you will end and you will RL suggests an excellent tawny plumage that have black colored feathers from primaries and tail. All the breeds (Contour S1) inform you single comb and lay tinted eggshell egg (Profile S2).

dos. Content and methods

Birds out of for each reproduce hatched at the same time (second half out-of elizabeth farm of your Centre getting Chicken Biodiversity Maintenance throughout the Veneto part (they routinely offers new rearing of those breeds also when it comes to eggs development for incubation and you will brooding), in the Northern Italy (45°02?53? N), regarding hatching towards the pubertal years and you may throughout the laying months, which already been regarding the stop off june toward start of fall (Shape step 1), with respect to the reproduce. Serving, rearing criteria (photoperiod, temperature) and prophylaxis actions was in fact an equivalent with the four breeds, since from Relaterad webbplats hatching towards end of the analyzed months, which had been during the , on 53 months of age. The fresh new freshly hatched chicks was indeed remaining indoors in the basic cuatro days of life, at the an environmental temperatures decreasing out of thirty-two so you’re able to 24 °C, significantly less than infra-purple light lamps, on litter. In the 1.5 weeks old, the fresh new birds received 100 % free access to backyard room, away from spring so you’re able to autumn and you may cold temperatures. For every single breed (sixty hens) got 100 % free usage of outdoor (5 yards 2 /bird) room (equipped with linear drinkers), where hens stayed all round the day, in order to interior (cuatro hens/yards 2 ) place (timber shavings and you will straw litter, having perches and you will game feeders), mainly used for putting eggs (collective nests) and at night; the area (indoor and outdoor) available to each breed try separated by the netting.

At the start of laying (around twenty two weeks old towards reproduce having before start of installing), into the September–October, with respect to the breed, brand new photoperiod is pure and you may coming down, depending on the season together with geographical status of your own demonstration channel for the Northern Italy (an average of, 12L:12D), and for the 2nd period (off 38 months old, away from December to 53 months old), artificial white was slowly increased (from inside the interior place, incandescent bulb, about sixty lux) to acquire a good photoperiod out of 14L:10D. The newest photoperiod is actually managed of the a timer, and it also are achieved by switching on new light an hour or so ahead of sunrise and you can shutting off they one hour just after sunset. The brand new external environment heat was ten ± step 3.cuatro °C and 11 ± step three.0 °C, correspondingly, into earliest (right from the start off Oct towards stop regarding November) as well as the next (from the beginning off January into the stop away from February) laying symptoms, if the analysis on the produce show and you can egg quality was indeed amassed. The latest dogs received offer libitum commercial feeds predicated on its psychological phase (about three diversified industrial nourishes when you look at the increasing period). To the very first installing phase (26–33 days old, lower than decreasing sheer photoperiod), if types become laying, the new birds received a commercial pelleted provide (PG = 16%, Myself = eleven.8 MJ/kilogram, California = step 1.1%, P = 0.6%) and you will maize (PG = 9.1%, Me = thirteen.7 MJ/kg), within a proportion of just one:1. It is worth recalling that, at that ages, precisely the dual-objective and you can tinted eggshell breeds displayed a varying start of laying and you may egg design rates, whereas the newest hens of the other varieties of the fresh Maintenance Middle to have Biodiversity and you may hatched meanwhile of studied types, for instance the white eggshell breeds, did not initiate putting (Padovana reproduce) or they shown an incredibly light laying passion (Polverara breed), never ever attaining the threshold off ten% hen–big date eggs production. The reason behind the option of brand new Maintenance Center, never to explore a feed to possess laying hens through the this era, was because of not pushing this new pullets in order to egg production through the a month that have coming down temperature and you can photoperiod. The fresh new wild birds grew external, around beneficial standards to own skeletal wellness, walking on crushed and under solar power rays. Regarding the outdoor space per reproduce, the presence of lawn accessible to the latest wild birds was higher during the expanding months than within start of laying, and that taken place pursuing the summer time, when the precipitation was scarce and you will did not support a great turf regrowth. Of 38 so you can 53 months of age, and you can under increasing photoperiod, brand new hens was basically given a commercial pelleted offer to possess installing (PG = 16%, Me = 11.5 MJ/kilogram, California = 4.2%, P = 0.6%). All feeds consisted mostly out of maize and you may soybean.